The goal of this project is to develop new low cost hydrogen storage substrates from a waste material (6 billion lbs/yr in U.S.) —chicken feathers. The results showed that carbonized chicken feathers (CCFF) have the potential to meet the DOE requirements for H2 storage and are competitive with carbon nanotubes and metal hydrides at a tiny fraction of the cost. When keratin based chicken feathers are heat treated by controlled pyrolysis, hollow carbon microtubes are formed with nanoporous walls. Their specific surface area increases up to 450 m2/g by the formation of fractals and micropores thus enabling more hydrogen adsorption than raw (untreated) feather fibers. Experimental hydrogen storage optimization results and surface characterization of CCFF by SEM, XPS and N2 adsorption will be demonstrated. Furthermore, recent findings on heat treatment of chicken feather fibers by thermal analysis techniques will be discussed in detail.