375 Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease

Friday, November 6, 2009: 8:30 AM
Angus (Camino Real Hotel)
Joanne Slavin, PhD, RD , Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Diets low in energy and fat, such as those typically recommended for obese people are poorly satiating.  Adding fiber to low-calorie/low-fat foods may enhance satiety.  Consumption of high fiber diets is linked to lower body weight and body fat and less weight gain over time in epidemiological studies.  Dietary fiber may impact body weight by many mechanisms including hormonal, intrinsic, and colonic effects.  Adding bulk to the diet with fiber will also reduce the energy density of the diet.  Satiety signals are generated both pre- and post-absorptively so different types of fiber may be effective by different mechanisms.  Viscous fibers have been linked to improved satiety, but insoluble fibers that survive gut transit also are satiating.  Our studies show that subjects are significantly more full after consuming resistant starch and corn bran muffins than after eating polydextrose muffins.  Results from our work support that not all fibers influence satiety equally.   Effectiveness of different functional fibers on satiety must be balanced with gastrointestinal tolerance of these fibers.  In general, resistant starches are well tolerated while oligosaccharides including fructo- and galacto- may cause gastrointestinal disturbances when consumed in quantities that impact satiety.  Public health messages to increase consumption of dietary fiber are widely accepted, although scientific support for isolated fibers impacting body weight are lacking.

 

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